IGMP: what is behind the Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organization and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...

IaaS: highly scalable IT infrastructure from the cloud

Cloud computing offers companies excellent opportunities to outsource resources. For example, the cloud model “Infrastacture as a Service” (IaaS) provides access to IT infrastracture that is traditionally provided and maintained by an external provider. This way, a complete network or data center can be set up without the need for your own hardware, the size of which can be scaled at any time. But...

Cloud Storage: How does data storage in the cloud work?

Portable storage media such as CDs or USB sticks are still in demand when making backups or transferring files to another device. More and more often however, users also rely on cloud storage solutions that allow data to be outsourced to an external server environment. But what exactly is cloud storage? And how does this storage model offered by various providers work?

Fog computing: decentralized approach for IoT clouds

Traditionally, cloud solutions are designed for central data processing. IoT devices generate data, send it to a central computing platform in the cloud, and await a response. However, with large-scale cloud architectures, such a system inevitably leads to bandwidth problems. For future projects such as connected cities and smart manufacturing, classic cloud computing is a hindrance to growth. The...

An introduction to virtual machines

Virtual machines are extremely practical and versatile: Do you want to set up an isolated test environment, run a Linux application on your Windows computer, or provide different operating systems for cross-platform software tests? With the right virtualization software and an appropriate image file, this is easy. We will introduce you to the basics of hypervisor-supported hardware virtualization...

Golang: the simple programming language from Google

Google is best known for its search engine, but also for services like AdWords, Maps, or Gmail. Since 2012, the mega-corporation has had its own programming language in its product range: Go. Also known under the name Golang, it has drawn attention to itself through its simplicity. But how does it differ from established representatives like C++ or JavaScript? And when does it make sense to...

SAN storage: how to safely store large volumes of data

Due to rising worldwide data usage, more and more companies around the world are moving away from dedicated data servers and instead opting for more holistic solutions in the form of centrally stored data networks. This structure is carried out in the form of storage area networks, or SANs. SAN storage users profit from quick data access and comprehensive hardware redundancy.

Network time protocol (NTP): definition and functionality

Computer systems and applications use time stamps for communication purposes. Synchronous system times are highly important for these so-called temporal signatures to be of any use – especially for systems that exchange information via the internet. A protocol that has provided valuable assistance for decades is the network time protocol (NTP) – here is an introduction to NTP, as well as some...

Introduction to PowerShell – Tools for system administrators

For a long time, Windows users were left behind when it came to command interpreters because the command prompt did not allow full access to operating system internal components, and scripting also offered only limited possibilities. This should finally change thanks to Microsoft’s PowerShell. The cross-platform program not only does much better than cmd.exe, it also provides remote computer...

CSMA/CD: Explanation of the process

Rules must be observed when communicating in a group. This is no different with local networks: CSMA/CD regulates how data packet collisions must be handled in a LAN network. But what happens if several participants attempt to simultaneously carry out a transmission and the information gets lost? Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection is an important procedure for smooth network...