Protocols

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organization and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...

IGMP snooping

IGMP snooping

If a system in IP networks is to send data packets to different target hosts as efficiently as possible, an IP multicasting connection is the perfect solution. When it comes to multipoint transmission, the data packets are able to reach all interested parties thanks to various protocols such as GMP, for example. Switches and internet routers can also use the communication protocol for IGMP...

What is ICMP protocol and how does it work?

What is ICMP protocol and how does it work?

In the background, numerous protocols ensure that communication and data transmission work in computer networks. As the most prominent representative, the Internet Protocol plays a fundamental role. Without its’ various extensions and additions they would be nowhere near as versatile, as is the case in the current protocol. Thanks to the possibilities offered by ICMP protocol error messages and...

MPLS:  What is Multiprotocol label switching?

MPLS: What is Multiprotocol label switching?

Speed and reliability play an important role for data transfer in networks. They reflect the quality of the connection, which is why providers do everything they can to guarantee the agreed services. A method primarily used in virtual private networks is the so-called multiprotocol label switching (MPLS).

MAC address

MAC address

Without a MAC address, nothing in a network will work on your device. Just as your postman needs a valid address to reliably deliver the mail, the transmission of data packets in computer networks is only possible with the unique hardware address of the target device. When it comes to a MAC address, at least there is one address available on each network-compatible device. But what is the MAC...

SNTP: simple network time protocol

SNTP: simple network time protocol

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronization methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

clear cookies

clear cookies

Some cookies can be very helpful – they let you sleep on those impulse purchases and keep them from disappearing out of your shopping cart, or log into social media sites with just one click. But not all cookies make surfing the web easier, and some may even forward unwanted information to third parties. It is a good idea to learn how to clear cookies, and this guide will show you how to clear...

DHCP: An overview of the Client/Server protocol

DHCP: An overview of the Client/Server protocol

If you’re connected to an internet router and power on your computer, it automatically obtains the necessary network parameters, such as the IP address, subnet mask, or DNS server. This is made possible by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which simplifies address assignment when connecting to the internet and makes setting up local networks easy as pie.

What is ARP? – Address resolution in networks

What is ARP? – Address resolution in networks

When computer information is sent in TCP/IP networks, it is first decompressed into individual data frames. In this way, you can transfer data of nearly unlimited size. The frames also contain the target system’s MAC address, without which a transmission would not be possible. If the physical address is not known, the sender must first be determined using the ARP Address Resolution Protocol. Here,...

550 requested action not taken: possible solutions

550 requested action not taken: possible solutions

If you want to send a message with your e-mail client and the sending fails, you’ll receive a corresponding error message from the server, including an SMTP status code. For example, the message “550 Requested action not taken: mailbox unavailable” means that the targeted address couldn’t be reached. Since this problem can have various causes, even more possible solutions exist, some of which you...